how expdp is faster than exp, what oracle internally change to speed up datapump?

Data pump is block mode and exp is a byte mode. So, block mode is always faster than the byte mode

ORACLE Export (exp) vs Datapump (expdp)

Datapump uses the Direct Path data access method (which permits the server to bypass SQL and go right to
the data blocks on disk) has been rewritten to be much more efficient and now supports Data
Pump Import and Export.

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