An instance(crash) failure occurs when your database isn’t able to shutdown normally.
When this happens, your datafiles could be in an inconsistent state meaning they may not
contain all committed changes and may contain uncommitted changes.

Instance failures occur when the instance terminates abnormally. A sudden power failure
or a shutdown abort are two common causes of instance failure.
Oracle uses crash recovery to return the database to a consistent committed state after
an instance failure.

Crash recovery guarantees that when your database is opened, it will contain only transactions
that were committed before the instance failure occurred.

Oracle system monitor will automatically detect whether crash recovery is required.

Crash recovery has two phases : roll forward and rollback

The system monitor will first roll forward and apply to the datafiles any transactions in the
online redo files that occurred after the most recent checkpoint.

Crash Recovery uses redo information found in the online redo log files only
After rolling forward, Oracle will rollback any of those transactions that were never committed.

Oracle uses information stored in the undo segments to rollback (undo) any uncommitted transactions.

When you start your database, Oracle uses the SCN information in the control files and
datafiles headers to determine which one of the following will occur.

Starting up normally.

Performing crash Recovery

Determining that media reocvery is required.

On start up , Oracle check the instance thread status to determine whether crash recover is required .

When the database is open for normal operations ,the thread status is OPEN. When Oracle us shut down normally ,
a checkpoint takes place and the instance thread status is set to CLOSED.

when your instance abnormally terminates the thread status remains OPEN because Oracle didn’t get a chance to
update the status to CLOSED.

On startup , When Oracle detects that an instance thread was abnormally left open, the system monitor process
will automatically perform crash recovery.

The below query , it will usefull to find out whether crash recovery is required.

select a.thread#,b.open_mode,a.status,
WHEN((b.open_mode=’MOUNTED’) AND (a.status=’OPEN’)) THEN ‘Crash Recovery req.’
WHEN((b.open_mode=’MOUNTED’) AND (a.status=’CLOSED’)) THEN ‘No Crash Recovery Req.’
WHEN((b.open_mode=’READ WRITE’) AND (a.status=’OPEN’)) THEN ‘Instance already open’
ELSE ‘huh?’
FROM v$thread a,
v$database b,
v$instance c
where a.thread#=c.thread#;

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